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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this thesis: http://hdl.handle.net/10589/74403

Author: LO PRETE, MATTEO
Supervisor: PAOLETTI, INGRID
Coordinator: MUSSINELLI, ELENA GERMANA
Tutor: PAOLETTI, INGRID
Department : DIPARTIMENTO DI ARCHITETTURA, INGEGNERIA DELLE COSTRUZIONI E AMBIENTE COSTRUITO
PhD course: PROGETTO E TECNOLOGIE PER LA VALORIZZAZIONE DEI BENI CULTURALI
Cycle: 25
Scientific Disciplinary Sector: ICAR/12 TECNOLOGIA DELL'ARCHITETTURA
Date: 18-Mar-2013
Title: Synergies between management and valorization of cultural heritage through models based on BIM technologies
Italian abstract: During the last decades the rise of digital technologies introduced a radical mutation into our contemporary society. The world of culture, even if deeply connected to the past and to traditions, cannot ignore this kind of revolution, and should take advantage from these new technologies by involving them into an own renovation process. In this sense and at European level, a series of international programs were launched in order to associate digitization strategies to the European cultural heritage, coordinating and focusing the efforts of many countries into a single impulse concentrated on common growth and evolution. Stimulated by this primary impulse, countries like France and Italy started to develop their own national strategies, aiming at implementing the digitization programs at different scales. The international effort focused on digitization strategies for the diffusion of the cultural heritage is also combined with the aim to preserve and maintain cultural resources, protecting them from an improper use or the degradation process due to their exposition and fruition by the visitors. The management of this heritage becomes another important aspect that can be associated to the adoption of digital technologies and interesting solutions can be transferred from other fields that already adopt ICT or other technologies in order to improve management processes. The main aim of the research consists into the analysis of the problems associated to the efficient management of the built heritage in association to the need of valorization that distinguish this kind of goods from common buildings. Considering the research framework, some of the most urgent problems concern the acquisition, in terms of typology and methodology, of building data useful to define a model and track the evolution of the building, responding at the same time the possibility of exploitation of these data for management and valorization purposes. The customization of acquisition methods in order to respond to specific cases, and the preservation/implementation of these data across a non-ordinary lifecycle represents a complementary critical aspect. The experimental applications presented are focused on the definition of possible synergies between management and valorization of the built heritage through the adoption of digital solutions which can be extrapolated from consolidated processes. The introduction of such technologies and the results achieved are directed to the definition of a workflow based on 3D technologies, dedicated to the production of digital models able to create synergies between management and valorization strategies, with possibilities of connection with programs based on digitization campaigns at national and international level. The methodological aspects related to the research theme are mainly focused on the transfer of 3D and BIM technologies from building industry, and the application of such platforms for the integration of technical and/or contractual documentation into tridimensional representations of the building belonging to local, national or international scales. Technology transfer represents the methodology adopted for the development of the research, because it represents a useful and fruitful approach for the acquisition of technologies already consolidated in specific fields, and the cross fertilization promoting innovation and development. The construction industry already faced the problem of management of buildings within their life cycle, together with the integration of multiple sources of information into a single reference able to offer 3D representation and data management. This consolidated background can be transformed and implemented in order to face the specificity of built heritage realities. The experimental applications approached during the research, and that lead to the definition of a consolidated workflow for future activities, are focused on three historical buildings located in Paris: the historical Parisian shopping mall called La Samaritaine, the science museum Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie and another shopping mall placed in Louvre Museum. The historical shopping mall La Samaritaine in Paris has the same level of importance shared by other historical malls in the French capital, like Bon Marché, Galeries Lafayette and Printemps. The history of the mall is closely related to the founders, Ernest Cognacq and Louise Jaÿ, and the architects Frantz Jourdain and Henri Sauvage, that realized between 1905 and 1928 a series of buildings of high architectural quality, hosting all the commercial activities of La Samaritaine. The case study is focused on the renovation of these buildings and the role of digital technologies in the process. The second case study, focused on Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie, concerns one of the biggest and most important science museums in Europe. The building is constructed around the vast steel trusses of an abattoir sales hall on which construction started in the 1960s and had halted in 1973. The transformation, commissioned on September 1980 and the museum was then opened on March 1986. In this case an existing digital acquisition of the building envelope and external structure was analyzed, evaluating the possibility of developing a 3D model useful for renovation and future exploitation purposes. This experience is useful to understand the relationship between the quality of a digital acquisition through laser scan technologies and the development of digital models. The historical and cultural importance of the site increases the interest for this experimental application. The last selected case study is focused on the renovation of a boutique in the Carrousel du Louvre the shopping mall which connects the two pyramids of Louvre Museum. The area is included into the renovation project “Le Grand Louvre”, designed by Ieoh Ming Pei and opened to the public on October 1988. The entrance of the boutique is directly connected with the inverse pyramid area, while the commercial space is about 3000 square meters. Although the vocation of the area differs from the rest of the museum being concentrated on commercial activities, the historical importance of the project and the delicate relationship with the museum under an aesthetical and cultural point of view are remarkable. The experience distributed on the three study cases, the repetition and optimization of some specific passages and the evaluation of the lessons learned from different experiences allowed the development of a consolidated workflow, that identifies a procedural approach to the development of a 3D “alter-ego” of an existing building, involved in at different levels in the cultural heritage of a local, national or international community. The key passages that compose the workflow are focused on: acquisition of building data, organization of point clouds and integration of other sources of information able to describe the built heritage, definition of reference geometries for architectural components, development/detailing of the building as 3D digital reconstruction, and implementation of instruments for the exploitation of the model between valorization and management. The advantages associated to the approach proposed concern the flexibility of the instruments adopted, the quality of the results obtained in terms of precision and level of detail, and the possibility of communication between the product developed and other solutions oriented on the exploitation of the building through the model. In this sense the final output of the thesis consists in the definition of a non-standard approach of 3D/BIM technologies, specifically related to the differences existing between new projects and the built heritage. A synergy between management and valorization approaches is proposed through the workflow, through the development of models to be adopted in both conditions, offering an integrated approach to the field. Future perspectives of this scenario are related to the diffusion of accurate methods for the acquisition of building data and the development of 3D models. This diffusion may bring a wide and common evolution, influencing management strategies of cultural heritage currently adopted in Italy and other European countries. The consequences of this improvement influence the optimization of management strategies, the reduction of related costs and a general improvement of the quality of our cultural heritage, achieving more results via calibrated actions.
English abstract: During the last decades the rise of digital technologies introduced a radical mutation into our contemporary society. The world of culture, even if deeply connected to the past and to traditions, cannot ignore this kind of revolution, and should take advantage from these new technologies by involving them into an own renovation process. In this sense and at European level, a series of international programs were launched in order to associate digitization strategies to the European cultural heritage, coordinating and focusing the efforts of many countries into a single impulse concentrated on common growth and evolution. Stimulated by this primary impulse, countries like France and Italy started to develop their own national strategies, aiming at implementing the digitization programs at different scales. The international effort focused on digitization strategies for the diffusion of the cultural heritage is also combined with the aim to preserve and maintain cultural resources, protecting them from an improper use or the degradation process due to their exposition and fruition by the visitors. The management of this heritage becomes another important aspect that can be associated to the adoption of digital technologies and interesting solutions can be transferred from other fields that already adopt ICT or other technologies in order to improve management processes. The main aim of the research consists into the analysis of the problems associated to the efficient management of the built heritage in association to the need of valorization that distinguish this kind of goods from common buildings. Considering the research framework, some of the most urgent problems concern the acquisition, in terms of typology and methodology, of building data useful to define a model and track the evolution of the building, responding at the same time the possibility of exploitation of these data for management and valorization purposes. The customization of acquisition methods in order to respond to specific cases, and the preservation/implementation of these data across a non-ordinary lifecycle represents a complementary critical aspect. The experimental applications presented are focused on the definition of possible synergies between management and valorization of the built heritage through the adoption of digital solutions which can be extrapolated from consolidated processes. The introduction of such technologies and the results achieved are directed to the definition of a workflow based on 3D technologies, dedicated to the production of digital models able to create synergies between management and valorization strategies, with possibilities of connection with programs based on digitization campaigns at national and international level. The methodological aspects related to the research theme are mainly focused on the transfer of 3D and BIM technologies from building industry, and the application of such platforms for the integration of technical and/or contractual documentation into tridimensional representations of the building belonging to local, national or international scales. Technology transfer represents the methodology adopted for the development of the research, because it represents a useful and fruitful approach for the acquisition of technologies already consolidated in specific fields, and the cross fertilization promoting innovation and development. The construction industry already faced the problem of management of buildings within their life cycle, together with the integration of multiple sources of information into a single reference able to offer 3D representation and data management. This consolidated background can be transformed and implemented in order to face the specificity of built heritage realities. The experimental applications approached during the research, and that lead to the definition of a consolidated workflow for future activities, are focused on three historical buildings located in Paris: the historical Parisian shopping mall called La Samaritaine, the science museum Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie and another shopping mall placed in Louvre Museum. The historical shopping mall La Samaritaine in Paris has the same level of importance shared by other historical malls in the French capital, like Bon Marché, Galeries Lafayette and Printemps. The history of the mall is closely related to the founders, Ernest Cognacq and Louise Jaÿ, and the architects Frantz Jourdain and Henri Sauvage, that realized between 1905 and 1928 a series of buildings of high architectural quality, hosting all the commercial activities of La Samaritaine. The case study is focused on the renovation of these buildings and the role of digital technologies in the process. The second case study, focused on Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie, concerns one of the biggest and most important science museums in Europe. The building is constructed around the vast steel trusses of an abattoir sales hall on which construction started in the 1960s and had halted in 1973. The transformation, commissioned on September 1980 and the museum was then opened on March 1986. In this case an existing digital acquisition of the building envelope and external structure was analyzed, evaluating the possibility of developing a 3D model useful for renovation and future exploitation purposes. This experience is useful to understand the relationship between the quality of a digital acquisition through laser scan technologies and the development of digital models. The historical and cultural importance of the site increases the interest for this experimental application. The last selected case study is focused on the renovation of a boutique in the Carrousel du Louvre the shopping mall which connects the two pyramids of Louvre Museum. The area is included into the renovation project “Le Grand Louvre”, designed by Ieoh Ming Pei and opened to the public on October 1988. The entrance of the boutique is directly connected with the inverse pyramid area, while the commercial space is about 3000 square meters. Although the vocation of the area differs from the rest of the museum being concentrated on commercial activities, the historical importance of the project and the delicate relationship with the museum under an aesthetical and cultural point of view are remarkable. The experience distributed on the three study cases, the repetition and optimization of some specific passages and the evaluation of the lessons learned from different experiences allowed the development of a consolidated workflow, that identifies a procedural approach to the development of a 3D “alter-ego” of an existing building, involved in at different levels in the cultural heritage of a local, national or international community. The key passages that compose the workflow are focused on: acquisition of building data, organization of point clouds and integration of other sources of information able to describe the built heritage, definition of reference geometries for architectural components, development/detailing of the building as 3D digital reconstruction, and implementation of instruments for the exploitation of the model between valorization and management. The advantages associated to the approach proposed concern the flexibility of the instruments adopted, the quality of the results obtained in terms of precision and level of detail, and the possibility of communication between the product developed and other solutions oriented on the exploitation of the building through the model. In this sense the final output of the thesis consists in the definition of a non-standard approach of 3D/BIM technologies, specifically related to the differences existing between new projects and the built heritage. A synergy between management and valorization approaches is proposed through the workflow, through the development of models to be adopted in both conditions, offering an integrated approach to the field. Future perspectives of this scenario are related to the diffusion of accurate methods for the acquisition of building data and the development of 3D models. This diffusion may bring a wide and common evolution, influencing management strategies of cultural heritage currently adopted in Italy and other European countries. The consequences of this improvement influence the optimization of management strategies, the reduction of related costs and a general improvement of the quality of our cultural heritage, achieving more results via calibrated actions.
Italian keywords: patrimonio costruito; gestione; valorizzazione; BIM; tecnologie 3D; trasferimento tecnologico
English keywords: built heritage; management; valorization; BIM; 3D technologies; technology transfer
Language: eng
Publisher: Politecnico di Milano
Type of document: Tesi di dottorato
Appears in Collections:POLITesi >Tesi di Dottorato

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